Since the inspiration for this blog has insisted on a Marbury v. Madison post, I feel compelled to oblige him before moving on to more interesting topics. I will have to say that he will be disappointed by the overall word count, though, since 2500 words on the topic is more than I’d care to muster. Of course, Jim has His Very Own Blog and he is free to show me there exactly how someone manages a 2500 word post on Marbury v. Madison.
And for those who do not wish to read to the end, in Marbury v. Madison the final score was Marbury 0, Madison 1.
The “biology” view of communities has long been discredited, my sociology profs taught long ago, and yet anyone with even minimal observation skills can see that there is more than a passing resemblance between the way living organisms work and the way communities work. Communities are “born,” they go through a period of youth and vigor, can change, much like adolescents (though communities can undergo multiple changes, an are where the analogy can fail) enter a time of adult stability, then grow old and filled with accretions and die, leaving “offspring” behind. It is the change in communtieis that is always the most fascinating – as change tends to be in general – because it is during times of change that you can often see the groundwork for what is coming.
Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803) represents exactly such a moment of change that allows a vision of future groundwork. People today take for granted that courts review laws and sometimes invalidate them, but such was not always so. The only check on rulers and laws had traditionally been the force of arms by the ruled (or by outside antagonists). But Marbury established the concept of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. Wikipedia also says, “It was also the first time in the world that a court invalidated a law by declaring it ‘unconstitutional.'” but then goes on to add the dreaded “” needed to the assertion. Regardless of the whether it was the “first time” or not, a court had invalidated a law that was unconstitutional and therefore a Good Thing had happened. To quote yet another source, “And the Lord did grin. And the people did feast upon the lambs and sloths, and carp and anchovies, and orangutans and breakfast cereals, and fruit-bats.” And to your average American, that’s all that need be said. Which is because your average American is utterly clueless – on so many things, actually, but in this case on what Bastiat said regarding That Which is Seen, and That Which is Not Seen. Given the nature of education and entertainment in America, it’s not really a surprise. A choice between having to think or being able to watch American Idol Survivor Stars – Antarctica is just not a choice. “Oh look, a squirrel!” wins going away versus discussions of economics. And yet Bastiat’s point is perfect – that which is unseen is often just as important, or even more so, than that which is seen – but Americans can barely handle that which is seen, let alone muster the skill to look behind the curtain.
I can hear the whines now. What’s the prooooooblem? Judicial review of laws is a great idea! No argument from there. The problem is in the “that which is unseen” part. There are two parts which are “seen” here. The first is that there is a third branch of the federal government, a court system, and the second is that the courts overturned a law as unconstitutional. The overturning was Marbury. The third branch of government is established by Article III of the Constitution, to wit:
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.
The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;—between a State and Citizens of another State;—between Citizens of different States;—between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.
Can you see the unseen part? Anyone? Bueller?
Hint: Where does it say that the court has the power to overturn laws?
Oh, well that’s just inherent in the judicial power.
Oh really? Not before Marbury, apparently, if historical sources are to be believed. The “power” is being constructed out of thin air, right there. What you have, and this is not an original observation by any means, is a perfect example of the government growing beyond its established bounds, a sterling case of how the paper constitution was not going to be an impediment to the growth of Leviathan. The American federal government is supposed to be a government of limited and enumerated powers (try typing that with a straight face!) and here you have one of the branches already taking on powers not duly given to it. Is it any wonder that the courts have not been much of an impediment to the growth of the rest of the federal government, when their own alleged ability to do so rests on that very same growth?
I made earlier reference to the biology view of communities, and what we see here is a textbook example of exactly how that sort of model might gain traction. The American Community is born in revolution, undergoes growth and expansion, a painful adolescence (and not to a better “adult,” but that’s a topic for a different day), adulthood on the world stage, ever increasing senescence in the form of rules and restrictions (and a drain of vitality from parasites, but yet again that’s a different topic) until you get where we are today. A community that is well past its prime, but like many adults has covered up that aging process with a variety of prosthetics, dyes, injections, and other assorted – well, let’s be honest – “lies.” There appears to be more than a bit of dementia going on as well.
The only question that really remains is whether the ultimate demise will be on a bed, half conscious, hooked up to steadily failing life support – or whether it’s going to come from a complete and sudden systems failure while yelling at some other community to “get off our lawn.” But while the model may be in disrepute, that countries eventually die is not. American Exceptionalist Believers aside, there’s no historical guarantee that somehow America will be any different than any other nation that goes bankrupt economically or socially. The only thing is that that end is unseen by the majority who have other, more important to them, things to watch.
Furthermore…Oh look! Dancing With Orangutans is on! Gotta run…..